Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Misunderstandings of agile

A list of common misunderstandings of Agile development
  • Incremental vs Iterative development . There’s a big difference between incrementally developing an app (which it appears many people are doing when I ask them about their agile process) and iteratively developing an app. Incremental development normally involves building one piece of the app at a time and stitching the pieces together as they’re built. I’m not saying this is a bad idea, it’s just not ‘at the core’ of agile. On the other hand, Iterative development involves putting the ‘bare minimum’ end-to-end functionality in place then revisiting that same functionality over and over again adding features (and business value) to the application on each pass (or iteration). Of the two methods, incremental development can result in ‘gold plating’ of the first pieces developed at the expense of the quality of the latter ones.  On the other hand, Iterative development quickly allows the business to view the end-to-end functionality and identify which parts of the system need further work, focusing development on the best value. Iterative development relies far more on automated unit testing – since the code is reworked many times we need those tests to ensure we’re not introducing regressions. Because of the nature of iterative development the resulting code tends to be simpler, standardised, resilient to change, well factored, and well understood – in ideal shape to be supported in the long term. 
  • There’s no way to manage scope (aka  How can we pin the client down on what they want without a requirements document). In agile projects the scope is not fixed, but the project constraints are (time, cost). Waterfallers tend to hear the first part of that statement but not the second. Yes, the business can add requirements late in a project, but they may need to drop some other as-yet undeveloped requirement of a similar cost to develop. Scope is not constrained but the overall budget is. If there is benefit in increasing the budget to deliver more valuable requirements then do so - as you would for a CR in a waterfall project. 
  • The project never ends. Let’s first look at the definition of ‘ends’ – an agile project should end as soon as the business value of any new functionality delivered in the next sprint/iteration is less than the cost of delivering that sprint/iteration. With this definition of course some projects would never start since the first one or two sprints would deliver little value on their own, so we only generally apply this rule once we have some functionality working. Does this mean a project could never end – well yes – but what’s wrong with that if it’s delivering more and more value? 
  •  If the developers can choose their tasks, they’ll only choose the ‘fun’ ones. To some extent this is true, but remember that the tasks are created each sprint and need to be completed within the sprint. Developers could pick off the ‘fun’ ones to start with, but very quickly they’d find they have to pick up the rest. Also, because of the natural and usually obvious dependencies between tasks there would be a certain amount of team pressure to pick up the tasks that are urgent rather than letting individuals decide for themselves.
  • Agile has too many unproductive practices – TDD, refactoring. Personally, I’m very dubious of someone saying they practice agile development but don’t have automated builds, tests, and high code coverage. If you’re doing projects without these processes I suspect you’re doing incremental rather than iterative development to avoid the need to refactor ‘delivered’ functionality. If you avoid refactoring then there’s less need for automated tests to confirm that nothing has broken after you’ve refactored. But, in order to avoid refactoring you either have to compromise your design (creating add-ons rather than spotting opportunities for reuse) or you are not getting the benefits of agile by iterating on the same pieces of functionality. Saying automated testing is unnecessary is like not using scaffolding to paint the exterior of a building. For small buildings you can probably get away with it, but with anything larger the scaffolding will make you more productive in the long run and will probably result in a better quality finish than using a ladder. 
  •  Agile works better for smaller projects. I’m actually surprised by the number of people who have stated this opinion. ‘Its fine for <that small project you’re working on> but you wouldn’t use it to build <the air traffic control system / MRI scanning system I’m working on>’. Actually I’ll bet those complex systems would be perfect candidates for agile development. Though they may require more thorough testing before being put into production than a run-of-the-mill business system, they would have too much complexity to design solutions for at the start of the project. Agile’s sweet spot is achieved when used on projects with complex requirements that can’t be worked out up front. If you already know the requirements up front you might as well just write a spec and use a waterfall approach. 
  •  Refactoring should be unnecessary with some more design up front. This is missing the point. The assumption is that not all of the future requirements can be known upfront (otherwise you should just write a spec and use waterfall). If you accept that currently unknown requirements will materialise during the project affecting unknown parts of the system then you can accept that it will be impossible to design the system up front, and that doing so will just be wasted time since the designs will necessarily have to change later. Refactoring should be seen as a positive activity rather than a ‘time waster’. Revisiting and working on the same code should make it simpler, promote reuse, ensure more eyes look over the code, in short, make it easier to maintain and enhance in the long term, 
  •  It’s too unpredictable. Done poorly, agile is very unpredictable. Agile processes require discipline by the team to frequently estimate at the micro (task) level and the macro (release) level. Estimation at the task level helps to track sprint progress. Velocity measurements help to predict the release schedule, but only if the definition of ‘done’ is clear and rigorous. However, agile projects can be far more predictable than waterfall projects when managed correctly. The main reason for this is that agile projects track the progress of the product itself (we know at the end of each sprint how complete the system is), whereas waterfall projects track activities against a schedule, which is sometimes a very poor representation of real progress (we may have completed 80% of the work, but the product is in some unknown state of completeness – maybe 50%, maybe 90% - we won’t really know until we’ve completed testing). 
  • It’s an excuse to avoid documentation. Some people certainly behave as if this is their belief, and it is generally true that less documentation is produced on an agile project. On a waterfall projects documentation is seen as equivalent to the process – therefore if you are lacking documentation you obviously are lacking process. On agile projects the documentation (writings) are more numerous, much smaller, and created over the duration of the project. In agile, requirements are written down and acceptance criteria are defined – what more is necessary? You might be inclined to produce some screen mock ups – but that would require knowing all the functionality that will be displayed on that screen up front rather than iterating towards the design. You might want to document test results – but why bother, if they pass all is well, if they fail you raise it with the developer and/or add another product backlog item depending on when it was found. End user and support documentation is generally valuable, but these should be created as part of the deliverables of the project, and they tend to be overlooked on both Agile and Waterfall projects. How many requirements documents from waterfall projects are valuable after the software is launched?
I tried to list 10 misunderstandings but only reached 9. Maybe you can suggest the tenth one yourself?